2D-montmorillonite-dispersed g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 2D/0Dnanocomposite for enhanced photo-induced H 2 evolution from glycerol-water mixture

Nur Fajrina, Muhammad Tahir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


Montmorillonite (MMT) dispersed g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photo-catalytic hydrogen production from glycerol-water mixture has been investigated. The newly designed composite photo-catalysts were fabricated through a sol-gel assisted hydrothermal method and were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDX, TEM, FTIR, UV–Vis, Raman and PL spectroscopy. Well-designed g-C 3 N 4 /MMT/TiO 2 heterojunction composite was obtained with 2D MMT structure, which promoted both visible light absorption and hindered charges recombination rate. The modification of 2D/0D g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 heterojunction with 2D MMT sheets enhances H 2 production due to MMT works as a mediator for effective charges trapping and transportation within the composite structure. The g-C 3 N 4 /MMT/TiO 2 photo-catalyst exhibits highest H 2 production of 4425 ppm h −1 g −1 at pH 7.0, which was 2.12 times higher than the pure TiO 2 (2085 ppm h −1 g −1 ). In addition, increasing catalyst loading promotes more H 2 evolution and among the different sacrificial reagents, glycerol-water mixture gave highest H 2 production due to the presence of α-hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms. The enhanced photo-catalytic efficiency can be attributed to synergistic effect of MMT with g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 heterojunction composite, appropriate band structure and transportation of electrons–holes with their hindered recombination rate. These composite catalysts exhibited excellent photo-catalytic stability for H 2 production in cyclic runs. Possible reaction mechanism for hydrogen production over g-C 3 N 4 /MMT/TiO 2 composite has been explained based on the experimental results. The finding of this work would be fruitful for hydrogen production applications with all sustainable systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-1064
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - Mar 31 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • g-C N
  • Hydrogen production
  • Montmorillonite
  • Photo-catalysis
  • TiO
  • Z-scheme

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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