A Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Models: A Case Study in Predicting Chronic Kidney Disease

Hasnain Iftikhar, Murad Khan, Zardad Khan, Faridoon Khan, Huda M. Alshanbari, Zubair Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


In the modern world, chronic kidney disease is one of the most severe diseases that negatively affects human life. It is becoming a growing problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. An accurate and timely diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is vital in preventing and treating kidney failure. The diagnosis of chronic kidney disease through history has been considered unreliable in many respects. To classify healthy people and people with chronic kidney disease, non-invasive methods like machine learning models are reliable and efficient. In our current work, we predict chronic kidney disease using different machine learning models, including logistic, probit, random forest, decision tree, k-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine with four kernel functions (linear, Laplacian, Bessel, and radial basis kernels). The dataset is a record taken as a case–control study containing chronic kidney disease patients from district Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To compare the models in terms of classification and accuracy, we calculated different performance measures, including accuracy, Brier score, sensitivity, Youdent, specificity, and F1 score. The Diebold and Mariano test of comparable prediction accuracy was also conducted to determine whether there is a substantial difference in the accuracy measures of different predictive models. As confirmed by the results, the support vector machine with the Laplace kernel function outperforms all other models, while the random forest is competitive.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2754
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • chronic kidney disease
  • comparative analysis
  • machine learning models
  • predictions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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