A comparative analysis of sleep spindle characteristics of sleep-disordered patients and normal subjects

Chao Chen, Kun Wang, Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem, Lin Lu, Weibo Yi, Jun Liang, Zhaoyang Huang, Dong Ming

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Spindles differ in density, amplitude, and frequency, and these variations reflect different physiological processes. Sleep disorders are characterized by difficulty in falling asleep and maintaining sleep. In this study, we proposed a new spindle wave detection algorithm, which was more effective compared with traditional detection algorithms such as wavelet algorithm. Besides, we recorded EEG data from 20 subjects with sleep disorders and 10 normal subjects, and then we compared the spindle characteristics of sleep-disordered subjects and normal subjects (those without any sleep disorder) to assess the spindle activity during human sleep. Specifically, we scored 30 subjects on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and then analyzed the association between their sleep quality scores and spindle characteristics, reflecting the effect of sleep disorders on spindle characteristics. We found a significant correlation between the sleep quality score and spindle density (p = 1.84 × 10−8, p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.). We, therefore, concluded that the higher the spindle density, the better the sleep quality. The correlation analysis between the sleep quality score and mean frequency of spindles yielded a p-value of 0.667, suggesting that the spindle frequency and sleep quality score were not significantly correlated. The p-value between the sleep quality score and spindle amplitude was 1.33 × 10−4, indicating that the mean amplitude of the spindle decreases as the score increases, and the mean spindle amplitude is generally slightly higher in the normal population than in the sleep-disordered population. The normal and sleep-disordered groups did not show obvious differences in the number of spindles between symmetric channels C3/C4 and F3/F4. The difference in the density and amplitude of the spindles proposed in this paper can be a reference characteristic for the diagnosis of sleep disorders and provide valuable objective evidence for clinical diagnosis. In summary, our proposed detection method can effectively improve the accuracy of sleep spindle wave detection with stable performance. Meanwhile, our study shows that the spindle density, frequency and amplitude are different between the sleep-disordered and normal populations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1110320
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • EEG
  • fusion algorithm
  • sleep disorders
  • sleep spindle characteristics
  • sleep spindles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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