A critical review on global CO2emission: Where do industries stand?

Nahed Bahman, Dalal Alalaiwat, Zainab Abdulmohsen, Mohamed Al Khalifa, Safeya Al Baharna, Mariam Ahmed Al-Mannai, Adnan Younis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Global CO2 emissions from different industries have been increasing at an alarming rate. This growth is outpacing the efforts, nations are putting in place to reduce their carbon footprints. In this topical review, we critically analyze the level of CO2 emissions on a global scale and across various industries and activities within them and the dominant anthropogenic forcing instability. The global CO2 emission from various economic sectors such as industries, transportation and variety of waste sources were traced globally and regionally. To contextualize our review, the sector wise CO2 emission trends data for a period more than a decade is reviewed which highlighted the main sources of emissions. The data shows the overall reduction of carbon footprints and its progress across various sectors is very limited. The governing factors for this continued global pattern can be ascribed to two main factors: high consumer demands, and poor efforts towards shifting low and zero carbon services across all sectors. Some efforts have been witnessed to shift towards clean fuels and renewables, particularly in Europe and North America. However, rapid growth in industrialization limits the shifting of fossil-based energy systems towards less harmful systems. In Asia, particularly in eastern, southern, and south-eastern regions, the carbon footprints were found to increased owing to a huge demand for materials production, travelling and energy services. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify, understand and tackle the most persistent and climate-harmful factors across all industries and drive such policies to substitute the fossil fuels with renewables.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)681-696
Number of pages16
JournalReviews on Environmental Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • convergence
  • global COemissions
  • industrial emissions
  • per capita emissions
  • transportation emissions
  • waste

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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