A Fog Computing Framework for Intrusion Detection of Energy-Based Attacks on UAV-Assisted Smart Farming

Junaid Sajid, Kadhim Hayawi, Asad Waqar Malik, Zahid Anwar, Zouheir Trabelsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Precision agriculture and smart farming have received significant attention due to the advancements made in remote sensing technology to support agricultural efficiency. In large-scale agriculture, the role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has increased in remote monitoring and collecting farm data at regular intervals. However, due to an open environment, UAVs can be hacked to malfunction and report false data. Due to limited battery life and flight times requiring frequent recharging, a compromised UAV wastes precious energy when performing unnecessary functions. Furthermore, it impacts other UAVs competing for charging times at the station, thus disrupting the entire data collection mechanism. In this paper, a fog computing-based smart farming framework is proposed that utilizes UAVs to gather data from IoT sensors deployed in farms and offloads it at fog sites deployed at the network edge. The framework adopts the concept of a charging token, where upon completing a trip, UAVs receive tokens from the fog node. These tokens can later be redeemed to charge the UAVs for their subsequent trips. An intrusion detection system is deployed at the fog nodes that utilize machine learning models to classify UAV behavior as malicious or benign. In the case of malicious classification, the fog node reduces the tokens, resulting in the UAV not being able to charge fully for the duration of the trip. Thus, such UAVs are automatically eliminated from the UAV pool. The results show a 99.7% accuracy in detecting intrusions. Moreover, due to token-based elimination, the system is able to conserve energy. The evaluation of CPU and memory usage benchmarks indicates that the system is capable of efficiently collecting smart-farm data, even in the presence of attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3857
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • fog nodes
  • intrusion detection
  • precision agriculture
  • smart farming
  • unmanned aerial vehicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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