A fractional–order model with different strains of COVID-19

Isa Abdullahi Baba, Fathalla A. Rihan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the dynamics of COVID-19 variants using a Caputo–Fabrizio fractional order model. The reproduction ratio R0 and equilibrium solutions are determined. The purpose of this article is to use a non-integer order derivative in order to present information about the model solutions, uniqueness, and existence using a fixed point theory. A detailed analysis of the existence and uniqueness of the model solution is conducted using fixed point theory. For the computation of the iterative solution of the model, the fractional Adams–Bashforth method is used. Using the estimated values of the model parameters, numerical results are used to support the significance of the fractional-order derivative. The graphs provide useful information about the complexity of the model, and provide reliable information about the model for any case, integer or non-integer. Also, we demonstrate that any variant with the largest basic reproduction ratio will automatically outperform the other variant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number127813
JournalPhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2022


  • Adams–Bashforth technique
  • COVID-19 variants
  • Caputo–Fabrizio
  • Existence and uniqueness
  • Numerical scheme

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability


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