A Grid-Connected Optimal Hybrid PV-BES System Sizing for Malaysian Commercial Buildings

Jahangir Hossain, Aida F.A. Kadir, Hussain Shareef, Rampelli Manojkumar, Nagham Saeed, Ainain N. Hanafi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this article, the optimal sizing of hybrid solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems is evaluated with respect to rooftop space and feed-in tariff rates. The battery scheduling is performed using a proposed rule-based energy management strategy. The rules are formulated based on the demand limit, PV export power limit, and state of charge of the battery. Furthermore, optimization modeling with initial choices of parameters and constraints in terms of solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage capabilities is developed to minimize the total net present cost. The hourly values of solar irradiance, air temperature, electrical loads, and electricity rates are considered the inputs of the optimization process. The optimization results are achieved using particle swarm optimization and validated through an uncertainty analysis. It is observed that an optimal photovoltaic and battery energy storage system can reduce the cost of electricity by 12.33%, including the sale of 5944.029 kWh of electricity to the grid. Furthermore, energy consumption, peak demand, and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 13.71%, 5.85%, and 62.59%, respectively. A comprehensive analysis between the variable and fixed data for the load, energy from PV, batteries, and the grid, and costs demonstrates that the optimal sizing of photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems with the best mix of energy from PV, batteries, and the grid provides the optimal solution for the proposed configuration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10564
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Volume15
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • battery energy storage
  • energy management system
  • grid-connected commercial buildings
  • optimal capacities
  • rooftop photovoltaic
  • total net present cost

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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