A multimodality therapeutic application on Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis utilizing Spiramycin and ‘de novo’ Ferula asafetida in immunodeficient mice

Badria Hassan Almurshidi, Zeinab Fahmy, Amal El-Shennawy, Eman A.H. Selim, Olfat Ali Hammam, Hend Okasha, Wissam Al-Hajj, Salma Awad Mahmoud, Gehan Labib Abuelenain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study investigated a ‘de Novo’ medicinal herb, Ferula asafetida (FA), against toxoplasma encephalitis either alone or combined with spiramycin (SP). Female Swiss-Webster mice (n = 72) were divided into three batches. Batch-I received no DMS to serve as an immunocompetent control, batch-II was immune-suppressed with the DMS (0.25 mg/g/day) for 14 days pre-infection, whilst batch-III was immune-suppressed with the DMS on the same day of infection. All experimental mice were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii ME49 cysts (n = 75). Each batch was split into four subgroups: Mono-SP, mono-FA, combined drug (SP + FA), or neither. Therapies were administered on day zero of infection in batches (I and II) and 35 days post-infection in batch (III). Treatments lasted for 14 days, and mice were sacrificed 60 days post-infection. Histopathological changes, cysts load, and CD4 and CD8 T-cells were counted in brain tissues. The cyst-load count in mice receiving SP + FA was significantly (p <.0001) the least compared to the mono treatments in all protocols. Interestingly, the combined therapy demolished the T-cell subsets to zero in immunocompetent and immunocompromised infected mice. In conclusion, F. asafetida might be a powerfully natural, safe vehicle of SP in the digestive system and/or across the brain–blood barrier to control toxoplasmosis even through immunodeficient conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13014
JournalParasite Immunology
Volume45
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • drug discovery
  • Ferula ass-foetida
  • spiramycin, medicinal herbs
  • toxoplasmosis encephalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Immunology

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