A Novel ZnO Nanoparticles Enhanced Surfactant Based Viscoelastic Fluid Systems for Fracturing under High Temperature and High Shear Rate Conditions: Synthesis, Rheometric Analysis, and Fluid Model Derivation

Mahesh Chandra Patel, Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub, Anas Mohammed Hassan, Mazlin Bt Idress

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Surfactant-based viscoelastic (SBVE) fluids are innovative nonpolymeric non-newtonian fluid compositions that have recently gained much attention from the oil industry. SBVE can replace traditional polymeric fracturing fluid composition by mitigating problems arising during and after hydraulic fracturing operations are performed. In this study, SBVE fluid systems which are entangled with worm-like micellar solutions of cationic surfactant: cetrimonium bromide or CTAB and counterion inorganic sodium nitrate salt are synthesized. The salt reagent concentration is optimized by comparing the rheological characteristics of different concentration fluids at 25 °C. The study aims to mitigate the primary issue concerning these SBVE fluids: significant drop in viscosity at high temperature and high shear rate (HTHS) conditions. Hence, the authors synthesized a modified viscoelastic fluid system using ZnO nanoparticle (NPs) additives with a hypothesis of getting fluids with improved rheology. The rheology of optimum fluids of both categories: with (0.6 M NaNO3 concentration fluid) and without (0.8 M NaNO3 concentration fluid) ZnO NPs additives were compared for a range of shear rates from 1 to 500 Sec−1 at different temperatures from 25 °C to 75 °C to visualize modifications in viscosity values after the addition of NPs additives. The rheology in terms of viscosity was higher for the fluid with 1% dispersed ZnO NPs additives at all temperatures for the entire range of shear rate values. Additionally, rheological correlation function models were derived for the synthesized fluids using statistical analysis methods. Subsequently, Herschel–Bulkley models were developed for optimum fluids depending on rheological correlation models. In the last section of the study, the pressure-drop estimation method is described using given group equations for laminar flow in a pipe depending on Herschel–Bulkley-model parameters have been identified for optimum fluids are consistency, flow index and yield stress values.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4023
JournalPolymers
Volume14
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CTAB-based viscoelastic fluids
  • Herschel–Bulkley fluid models for SBVE or VES
  • innovative nonpolymeric fracturing fluid compositions
  • pressure drop estimation during laminar flow of viscoelastic fluids
  • surfactant-based viscoelastic fluids for fracturing
  • ZnO nanoparticle assisted viscoelastic fluids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

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