A pentaband compound reconfigurable antenna for 5g and multi-standard sub-6ghz wireless applications

Ikhlas Ahmad, Wasi Ur Rehman Khan, Haris Dildar, Sadiq Ullah, Shakir Ullah, Naveed Mufti, Babar Kamal, Toufeeq Ahmad, Adnan Ghaffar, Mousa I. Hussien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


This work proposes a low-profile, printed antenna that offers pattern and frequency reconfiguration functionalities printed on FR-4 substrate with a size of 46 × 32 × 1.6 mm3 . The proposed antenna can operate in five different frequency bands, each one identified as a Mode, wherein there are possibilities of pattern reconfiguration. The frequency and pattern reconfigurability are made possible through 12 p-i-n diode switches (S1 to S12). The former is enabled through the switches S1 to S4 within the radiating patch, hence effectively controlling the resonant bands of the antenna; the latter is made possible through main lobe beam steering, enabled by the rest of the eight switches (S5 to S12), loaded in split parasitic elements designed on both sides of the radiator. The proposed antenna operates in the 5 GHz (4.52–5.39 GHz) band when all switches are OFF. When S1 is ON, the operating band shifts to 3.5 GHz (2.96–4.17 GHz); it changes to a 2.6 GHz (2.36–2.95 GHz) band when S1 and S2 are ON. When S3 is also turned ON, the antenna shifts to the 2.1 GHz Band (1.95–2.30 GHz). When S1–S4 are ON, the operating band shifts to a 1.8GHz (1.67–1.90 GHz) band. In all these bands, the return loss remains less than −10 dB while maintaining good impedance matching. At each operating band, the ON/OFF states of the eight p-i-n diode switches (S5 through S12) enable beam steering. The proposed antenna can direct the main beam in five distinct directions at 3.5GHz, 2.6 GHz, and 2.1 GHz bands, and three different directions at 5 GHz and 1.8 GHz bands. Different 5G bands (2.1, 2.6, 3.5, and 5) GHz, which fall in the sub 6GHz range, are supported by the proposed antenna. In addition, GSM (1.8 GHz), UMTS (2.1 GHz), 4G-LTE (2.1 GHz and 2.6 GHz), WiMAX (2.6 GHz and 3.5 GHz) and WLAN (5 GHz) applications are also supported by the proposed antenna, which is a candidate for handheld 5G/4G/3G devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2526
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2021


  • 5G
  • Beam steering
  • Compound reconfigurable antenna
  • Low-profile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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