Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in more than two fetal or neonatal interstitial spaces due to nonimmune causes. It is a serious condition that requires extensive medical care as it indicates severe fetal compromise. We clinically evaluated four patients from two branches of a highly consanguineous family from the UAE with NIHF using whole exome sequencing and in silico analysis. Fetal onset pleural and peritoneal effusions were detected in all four patients and were born with moderate to severe hydrops fetalis that resolved with age. Follow up showed relatively normal growth and development apart from mild ascites and haemangiomas in all affected children, recurrent hydrocele in all affected males, intestinal malabsorption in two patients, dysmorphic features in two patients, and congenital cardiac defects in three out of four patients. Molecular testing identified a homozygous eight nucleotide deletion in THSD1 gene (NM_199263:c.1163_1170delGGCCAGCC, p.Arg388Glnfs*66) as the underlying cause of this phenotype in the affected children. The novel variant cosegregates with the described phenotype in an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and is predicted to be pathogenic as it leads to a truncated protein that lost important structural and functional domains. Thrombospondin-1 domain containing protein 1 gene THSD1 has been recently associated with of NIHF and embryonic lethality. Here, we report the novel truncating THSD1 variant, and describe new clinical features that have not been reported previously thus expanding the phenotype associate with loss-of-function mutations in THSD1 causing NIHF.
- congenital heart defects
- exome sequencing reanalysis
- nonimmune hydrops fetalis
- thrombospondin 1 domain containing protein 1
ASJC Scopus subject areas