A Reliable Approach for Solving Delay Fractional Differential Equations

Ishaq Hashim, Mwaffag Sharadga, Muhammed I. Syam, Mohammed Al-Refai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we study a class of second-order delay fractional differential equations with a variable-order Caputo derivative. This type of equation is an extension to ordinary delay equations which are used in the modeling of several biological systems such as population dynamics, epidemiology, and immunology. Usually, fractional differential equations are difficult to solve analytically, and with fractional derivatives of variable-order, they become more challenging. Therefore, the need for reliable numerical techniques is worth investigating. To solve this type of equation, we derive a new approach based on the operational matrix. We use the shifted Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind as the basis for the approximate solutions. A convergence analysis is discussed and the uniform convergence of the approximate solutions is proven. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the efficiency of the presented approach. The computed errors, figures, and tables show that the approximate solutions converge to the exact ones by considering only a few terms in the expansion, and illustrate the novelty of the presented approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124
JournalFractal and Fractional
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • Operational matrix method
  • Second-order fractional delay differential equation
  • Shifted Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analysis
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability


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