A Review of Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Amal A. Alfajeer, Saad Harous

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are a prominent research topic in academia and industry, with a wide range of underwater applications including ocean monitoring, seismic monitoring, environmental monitoring, and seabed exploration. However, UWSNs face a number of restrictions and obstacles, including high ocean interference and noise, long propagation times, narrow bandwidth, changeable network architecture, and sensor's battery life. One of the solutions to these problems is to build efficient routing protocols. A routing protocol can move data from a source node to a destination node in the network efficiently. A review of underwater routing protocols for UWSNs is presented in this paper. Existing underwater routing protocols are categorized into three categories: energy-based, data-based, and geographic information-based protocols. Recent underwater routing protocols are discussed in depth, by presenting their benefits, drawbacks and performance. In addition, We discuss challenges and future directions of underwater routing protocols, which can assist researchers interested to explore further this important research topic.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIET Conference Proceedings
PublisherInstitution of Engineering and Technology
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781839537042, 9781839537059, 9781839537189, 9781839537196, 9781839537424, 9781839537615, 9781839537769, 9781839537769, 9781839537813, 9781839537837, 9781839537868, 9781839537882, 9781839537899, 9781839537998, 9781839538063, 9781839538186, 9781839538391
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes
Event3rd International Conference on Distributed Sensing and Intelligent Systems, ICDSIS 2022 - Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Duration: Oct 19 2022Oct 21 2022


Conference3rd International Conference on Distributed Sensing and Intelligent Systems, ICDSIS 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited Arab Emirates


  • review
  • routing protocols
  • Underwater wireless networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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