A Review on Optimal Energy Management in Commercial Buildings

Jahangir Hossain, Aida F.A. Kadir, Ainain N. Hanafi, Hussain Shareef, Tamer Khatib, Kyairul A. Baharin, Mohamad F. Sulaima

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The rising cost and demand for energy have prompted the need to devise innovative methods for energy monitoring, control, and conservation. In addition, statistics show that 20% of energy losses are due to the mismanagement of energy. Therefore, the utilization of energy management can make a substantial contribution to reducing the unnecessary usage of energy consumption. In line with that, the intelligent control and optimization of energy management systems integrated with renewable energy resources and energy storage systems are required to increase building energy efficiency while considering the reduction in the cost of energy bills, dependability of the grid, and mitigating carbon emissions. Even though a variety of optimization and control tactics are being utilized to reduce energy consumption in buildings nowadays, several issues remain unsolved. Therefore, this paper presents a critical review of energy management in commercial buildings and a comparative discussion to improve building energy efficiency using both active and passive solutions, which could lead to net-zero energy buildings. This work also explores different optimum energy management controller objectives and constraints concerning user comfort, energy policy, data privacy, and security. In addition, the review depicts prospective future trends and issues for developing an effective building energy management system, which may play an unavoidable part in fulfilling the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1609
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • demand side management
  • energy management system
  • intelligent energy management system
  • net-zero energy management system
  • sustainable development goals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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