In this paper, we revisit the classical SIR epidemic model by replacing the simple bilinear transmission rate by a nonlinear one. Our results show that in the presence of environmental fluctuations represented by Brownian motion and that mainly act on the transmission rate, the generalized non-concave force of infection adopted here, greatly affects the long-time behavior of the epidemic. Employing the Markov semigroup theory, we prove that the model solutions do not admit a unique stationary distribution but converge to 0 in pth moment for any p > 0. Furthermore, we prove that the disease extinguishes asymptotically exponentially with probability 1 without any restriction on the model parameters and we also determine the rate of convergence. This is an unexpected qualitative behavior in comparison with the existing literature where the studied epidemic models have a threshold dynamics behavior. It is also a very surprising behavior regarding the deterministic counterpart that can exhibit a rich qualitative dynamical behaviors such as backward bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation. On the other hand, we show by several numerical simulations that as the intensity of environmental noises becomes sufficiently small, the epidemic tends to persist for a very long time before dying out from the host population. To solve this problem and to be able to manage the pre-extinction period, we construct a new process in terms of the number of infected and recovered individuals which admits a unique invariant stationary distribution. Finally, we discuss the obtained analytical results through a series of numerical simulations.
- Markov semigroup
- Non-concave force of infection
- convergence rate
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Modelling and Simulation