Radiesse® is a filler composed of calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres suspended in a carboxymethylcellulose gel (CaHA/CMC). It has robust rheological properties that have been associated with its versatility. CaHA/CMC is employed for both on-label indications of filling wrinkles or lines, volumizing, and contouring of areas as well as off-label indications aiming at biostimulation and skin tightening. However, despite the expanding use of CaHA/CMC, overall evidence and recommendations for treatment are currently lacking. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date overview of CaHA/CMC clinical applications, together with a level of evidence of supporting literature, focusing on the face. Based on the data, CaHA/CMC may be considered a safe and effective treatment option for cheeks, jawline, HIV-related facial lipoatrophy, and nasolabial folds. Treatment of marionette lines, chin, pre-jowl, and corner of the mouth also tends to respond with a high degree of efficacy. Despite the recent trend, guidelines, and safety profile of diluted and hyperdiluted Radiesse®, no randomized controlled trials have been published.
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