Abrasive wear behavior of CNT-filled unidirectional kenaf-epoxy composites

Napisah Sapiai, Aidah Jumahat, Mohammad Jawaid, Carlo Santulli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) fibers have received significant attention for replacing the usage of synthetic fibers, especially glass fiber, in the fabrication of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. The aim of this research was to study the change in wear behavior of kenaf-epoxy fiber composites by filling them with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). In particular, the effect of untreated MWCNT (PMWCNT), acid-treated MWCNT (AMWCNT), and silane-treated MWCNT (SMWCNT) was studied, using three different MWCNT loadings, i.e., 0.5, 0.75, and 1 wt.%. The abrasive wear test was conducted to measure the wear properties of the composites. A thermal infrared camera was also used to measure the punctual contact temperature during the abrasive wear test, while the abraded surfaces were analyzed using the stereomicroscope. Starting from the considerable reduction of wear rate with the introduction of kenaf fibers, it was observed that PMWCNT provided some further, yet modest, reduction of wear rate only at the higher loadings. In contrast, the inclusion of AMWCNT proved to increase the specific wear rate of the epoxy-kenaf composites, an effect worsened at higher loadings. This may be due to the weakened interfacial bonding between the AMWCNT and epoxy. On the other hand, the presence of SMWCNT improved the interfacial bonding between CNT and epoxy, as shown by an increase in contact temperature. However, the increase in bonding strength was stipulated to have caused the rougher worn debris, thus inducing a three-body abrasive wear effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number128
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Abrasive wear
  • Acid treated
  • Kenaf composites
  • Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)
  • Silane treated

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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