Acrylamide Elimination by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Screening, Optimization, In Vitro Digestion and Mechanism

Amal S. Albedwawi, Reem Al Sakkaf, Ahmed Yusuf, Tareq M. Osaili, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Shao Quan Liu, Giovanni Palmisano, Mutamed M. Ayyash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Acrylamide is a toxic compound that is formed in cooked carbohydrate-rich food. Baking, roasting, frying, and grilling are cooking methods that cause its formation in the presence of reducing sugar and asparagine. To prevent acrylamide formation or to remove it after its formation, scientists have been trying to understand acrylamide formation pathways, and methods of prevention and removal. Therefore, this study aimed to: (1) screen newly isolated LAB for acrylamide removal, (2) optimize conditions (pH, temperature, time, salt) of the acrylamide removal for selected LAB isolates using Box-Behnken design (BBD), (3) investigate the acrylamide removal abilities of selected LAB isolates under the in vitro digestion conditions using INFO-GEST2.0 model, and (4) explore the mechanism of the acrylamide removal using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Forty strains were tested in MRS broth, where Streptococcus lutetiensis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum had the highest capability of acrylamide removal by 39% and 26%, respectively. To enhance the binding ability, both strains were tested under controlled conditions of pH (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5), temperature (32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C), time (14, 18 and 22 h), and NaCl (0%, 1.5% and 3% w/v) using Box-Behnken design (BBD). Both strains removed more acrylamide in the range of 35–46% for S. lutetiensis and 45–55% for L. plantarum. After testing the bacterial binding ability, both strains were exposed to a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment, removing more than 30% of acrylamide at the gastric stage and around 40% at the intestinal stage. To understand the mechanism of removal, LAB cells were characterized via scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Cell charges were characterized by zeta potential and functional groups analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results indicated that increasing cell wall thickness improved acrylamide adsorption capacity. Both FTIR and EDS indicated that functional groups C=O, C-O, and N-H were associated with acrylamide adsorption.

Original languageEnglish
Article number557
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Acrylamide
  • Box-Behnken design
  • FTIR
  • TEM
  • The reduction mechanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology


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