Advances in enzyme and ionic liquid immobilization for enhanced in mofs for biodiesel production

Reem Shomal, Babatunde Ogubadejo, Toyin Shittu, Eyas Mahmoud, Wei Du, Sulaiman Al‐zuhair

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Biodiesel is a promising candidate for sustainable and renewable energy and extensive research is being conducted worldwide to optimize its production process. The employed catalyst is an important parameter in biodiesel production. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), which are a set of highly porous materials comprising coordinated bonds between metals and organic ligands, have recently been proposed as catalysts. MOFs exhibit high tunability, possess high crystallinity and surface area, and their order can vary from the atomic to the microscale level. However, their catalytic sites are confined inside their porous structure, limiting their accessibility for biodiesel production. Modification of MOF structure by immobilizing enzymes or ionic liquids (ILs) could be a solution to this challenge and can lead to better performance and provide catalytic systems with higher activities. This review compiles the recent advances in catalytic transesterification for biodiesel production using enzymes or ILs. The available literature clearly indicates that MOFs are the most suitable immobilization supports, leading to higher biodiesel production without affecting the catalytic activity while increasing the catalyst stability and reusability in several cycles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3512
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2021


  • Biodiesel
  • Immobilization
  • Ionic liquids
  • Lipases
  • Metal–organic frameworks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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