Advancing C-V2X for Level 5 Autonomous Driving from the Perspective of 3GPP Standards

Muhammad Jalal Khan, Manzoor Ahmed Khan, Sumbal Malik, Parag Kulkarni, Najla Alkaabi, Obaid Ullah, Hesham El-Sayed, Amir Ahmed, Sherzod Turaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) is one of the enabling vehicular communication technologies gaining momentum from the standardization bodies, industry, and researchers aiming to realize fully autonomous driving and intelligent transportation systems. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization body has actively been developing the standards evolving from 4G-V2X to 5G-V2X providing ultra-reliable low-latency communications and higher throughput to deliver the solutions for advanced C-V2X services. In this survey, we analyze the 3GPP standard documents relevant to V2X communication to present the complete vision of 3GPP-enabled C-V2X. To better equip the readers with knowledge of the topic, we describe the underlying concepts and an overview of the evolution of 3GPP C-V2X standardization. Furthermore, we provide the details of the enabling concepts for V2X support by 3GPP. In this connection, we carry out an exhaustive study of the 3GPP standard documents and provide a logical taxonomy of C-V2X related 3GPP standard documents divided into three categories: 4G, 4G & 5G, and 5G based V2X services. We provide a detailed analysis of these categories discussing the system architecture, network support, key issues, and potential solution approaches supported by the 3GPP. We also highlight the gap and the need for intelligence in the execution of different operations to enable the use-case scenarios of Level-5 autonomous driving. We believe, the paper will equip readers to comprehend the technological standards for the delivery of different ITS services of the higher level of autonomous driving.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2261
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • 3GPP
  • 4G
  • 5G
  • V2X
  • standards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


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