Alkylresorcinol metabolism in swedish adults is affected by factors other than intake of whole-grain wheat and rye

Matti Marklund, Rikard Landberg, Roger Andersson, Per Åman, Afaf Kamal-Eldin

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    13 Citations (Scopus)


    The urinary alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA), could potentially serve as biomarkers for intake of whole-grain (WG) wheat and rye. Excretion of AR metabolites is largely dependent on the intake of AR but may also be influenced by other factors. This study aimed to investigate the validity of free and conjugated AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG intake of wheat and rye and to identify potential determinants of AR metabolites in urine. We quantified free aglycones and conjugates of AR metabolites in 24-h urine collections from 52 free-living Swedish adults and calculated correlation coefficients between urinary AR metabolite excretion and self-reported WG intake. We used partial least-squares regression to identify possible determinants of urinary AR metabolites. Approximately 50% of urinary AR metabolites were found as conjugates. Excretions of individually quantified free and conjugated AR metabolites and their sums were correlated to self-reported intake ofWGrye and wheat (r = 0.50-0.68; P < 0.001). Excretion of urinary AR metabolites was mainly dependent on intake of 2 major dietary AR homologs, C19:0 and C21:0. Sex, BMI, and vitamin C intake were identified as determinants of the proportion of free and glucuronidated DHPPA in the present study. Urinary AR metabolites may be useful in reflecting short-term to mediumterm intake of WG, but urine samples should be deconjugated prior to quantification. Anthropometric and dietary factors affecting the proportion of conjugated AR metabolites in urine may to some extent influence AR elimination and thereby the performance of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1479-1486
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Nutrition
    Issue number8
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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