An advanced deep learning model for predicting water quality index

Mohammad Ehteram, Ali Najah Ahmed, Mohsen Sherif, Ahmed El-Shafie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Predicting a water quality index (WQI) is important because it serves as an important metric for assessing the overall health and safety of water bodies. Our paper develops a new hybrid model for predicting the WQI. The study uses a combination of a convolutional neural network (CNN), clockwork recurrent neural network (Clockwork RNN), and M5 Tree (CNN-CRNN-M5T) to predict a WQI. The M5T model lacks advanced operators for extracting meaningful data from water quality parameters, so the new model enhances its ability to analyze intricate patterns. The general linear model analysis of variance (GLM-ANOVA) is an improved version of the ANOVA. Our study uses the GLM-ANOVA to determine significant inputs. As all input variables had p < 0.050, they were defined as significant variables. Results showed that NH-NL and PH had the highest and lowest impact, respectively. Our study used the CNN-CRNN-M5T, CNN-CRNN, CRNN-M5T, CNN-M5T, CRNN, CNN, and M5T models to predict the WQI of a large basin in Malaysia. The CNN-CRNN decreased testing mean absolute error (MAE) of the CRNN, CNN, and M5T models by 2.1 %, 12 %, and 15 %, respectively. The CNN-CRNN-M5T model increased Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of the other models by 4–20 % and 2.1–19 %, respectively. The CNN-CRNN-M5T model was a reliable tool for spatial and temporal predictions of WQI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111806
JournalEcological Indicators
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Deep Learning model
  • Hybrid models
  • Water quality index
  • Water resource management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Decision Sciences
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology


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