An advanced hybrid deep learning model for predicting total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (EC) in coastal aquifers

Zahra Jamshidzadeh, Sarmad Dashti Latif, Mohammad Ehteram, Zohreh Sheikh Khozani, Ali Najah Ahmed, Mohsen Sherif, Ahmed El-Shafie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

For more than one billion people living in coastal regions, coastal aquifers provide a water resource. In coastal regions, monitoring water quality is an important issue for policymakers. Many studies mentioned that most of the conventional models were not accurate for predicting total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) in coastal aquifers. Therefore, it is crucial to develop an accurate model for forecasting TDS and EC as two main parameters for water quality. Hence, in this study, a new hybrid deep learning model is presented based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNE), Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks (LOST), and Gaussian Process Regression (GPRE) models. The objective of this study will contribute to the sustainable development goal (SDG) 6 of the united nation program which aims to guarantee universal access to clean water and proper sanitation. The new model can obtain point and interval predictions simultaneously. Additionally, features of data points can be extracted automatically. In the first step, the CNNE model automatically extracted features. Afterward, the outputs of CNNE were flattened. The LOST used flattened arrays for the point prediction. Finally, the outputs of the GPRE model receives the outputs of the LOST model to obtain the interval prediction. The model parameters were adjusted using the rat swarm optimization algorithm (ROSA). This study used PH, Ca + + , Mg2 + , Na + , K + , HCO3, SO4, and Cl to predict EC and TDS in a coastal aquifer. For predicting EC, the CNNE-LOST-GPRE, LOST-GPRE, CNNE-GPRE, CNNE-LOST, LOST, and CNNE models achieved NSE values of 0.96, 0.95, 0.92, 0.91, 0.90, and 0.87, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, EC, magnesium hazard ratio, sodium percentage, and total hardness indices were used to evaluate the quality of GWL. These indices indicated poor groundwater quality in the aquifer. This study shows that the CNNE-LOST-GPRE is a reliable model for predicting complex phenomena. Therefore, the current developed hybrid model could be used by private and public water sectors for predicting TDS and EC for enhancing water quality in coastal aquifers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalEnvironmental Sciences Europe
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024

Keywords

  • Deep learning
  • Interval prediction
  • Optimization algorithms
  • Point prediction
  • Sustainable development goal (SDG)
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution

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