Many current statistical and machine learning methods have been used to explore Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its associated patterns that contribute to the disease. However, there has been limited success in understanding the relationship between cognitive tests, biomarker data, and patient AD category progressions. In this work, we perform exploratory data analysis of AD health record data by analyzing various learned lower dimensional manifolds to separate early-stage AD categories further. Specifically, we used Spectral embedding, Multidimensional scaling, Isomap, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbour Embedding, Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection, and sparse denoising autoencoder based manifolds on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. We then determine the clustering potential of the learned embeddings and then determine if category sub-groupings or sub-categories can be found. We then used a Kruskal–sWallis H test to determine the statistical significance of the discovered AD subcategories. Our results show that the existing AD categories do exhibit sub-groupings, especially in mild cognitive impairment transitions in many of the tested manifolds, showing there may be a need for further subcategories to describe AD progression.
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