An analysis of sex-related differential item functioning in attitude assessment

Hamzeh Dodeen, George A. Johanson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    This study analyzes and classifies items that display sex-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in attitude assessment. It applies the Educational Testing Services (ETS) procedure that is used for classifying DIF items in testing to classify sex-related DIF items in attitude scales. A total of 982 items that measure attitudes from 23 real data sets were used in the analysis. Results showed that sex DIF is common in attitude scales: more than 27% of items showed DIF related to sex, 15% of the items exhibited moderate to large DIF, and the magnitudes of DIF against males and females were not equal.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)129-134
    Number of pages6
    JournalAssessment and Evaluation in Higher Education
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2003

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Education


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