An on-line tracking algorithm for Li-ion batteries' optimal charging frequency

Ala A. Hussein, Abbas A. Fardoun, Samantha S. Stephen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes an online tracking algorithm to allocate and track the optimal charging frequency for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in real time under any condition. The optimal frequency refers to the frequency of the sinusoidal component of the charging current at which the internal AC impedance of the battery cell is minimal. The AC impedance depends on the physical properties of the battery's electrodes and electrolyte. It also varies nonlinearly with temperature, state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH). Although the AC impedance can be determined offline using sophisticated AC cell models or measurement equipment, there is no direct way to measure it in real-time. The proposed technique has the capability of allocating and tracking the optimal frequency in real-time without using an AC battery model or measurement equipment. Moreover, the proposed technique is simple, inexpensive to implement, and applicable to any battery cell or pack. Derivation of the proposed technique followed by simulation verification is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
ISBN (Print)9781467380409
Publication statusPublished - Sept 30 2015
EventIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2015 - Denver, United States
Duration: Jul 26 2015Jul 30 2015


OtherIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2015
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Charging efficiency
  • constant current constant voltage (CCCV)
  • pulse charging
  • sinusoidal ripple charging (SRC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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