An Optimal Random Projection k Nearest Neighbors Ensemble via Extended Neighborhood Rule for Binary Classification

Amjad Ali, Zardad Khan, Dost Muhammad Khan, Saeed Aldahmani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents an ensemble method for binary classification, where each base model is based on an extended neighbourhood rule (ExNRule). The ExNRule identifies the neighbours of an unseen observation in a stepwise manner. This rule first selects the sample point closest to the experimental observation and then selects the second observation nearest to the previously chosen one. To find the required data points in the neighbourhood, this search is repeated up to k steps. The test sample point is predicted using majority voting in the class labels of the k chosen neighbours. In the proposed method, a large number of ExNRule based models are constructed on randomly projected bootstrap samples. The error rates of these models are computed using out-of-bag data points. The models are then ranked according to their out-of-bag errors, and a proportion of the most accurate models are selected. The final ensemble is constructed by combining the selected models. The proposed method is compared with other classical procedures on 15 benchmark datasets in terms of classification accuracy, Kohen's kappa and Brier score (BS) as performance metrics. Boxplots of the results are also constructed. The proposed ensemble is outperforming the existing methods on almost all the benchmark datasets. For further evaluation, the proposed method is compared with other kNN based classifiers on 3 datasets using different k values. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is also evaluated using simulated data under different scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61401-61409
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Classification
  • bootstrapping
  • ensemble learning
  • extended neighborhood rule
  • kNN
  • random projection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science


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