An Update on Advancements and Challenges in Inhalational Drug Delivery for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Vinit Agnihotri, Yogeeta Agrawal, Sameer Goyal, Charu Sharma, Shreesh Ojha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A lethal condition at the arterial–alveolar juncture caused the exhaustive remodeling of pulmonary arterioles and persistent vasoconstriction, followed by a cumulative augmentation of resistance at the pulmonary vascular and, consequently, right-heart collapse. The selective dilation of the pulmonary endothelium and remodeled vasculature can be achieved by using targeted drug delivery in PAH. Although 12 therapeutics were approved by the FDA for PAH, because of traditional non-specific targeting, they suffered from inconsistent drug release. Despite available inhalation delivery platforms, drug particle deposition into the microenvironment of the pulmonary vasculature and the consequent efficacy of molecules are influenced by pathophysiological conditions, the characteristics of aerosolized mist, and formulations. Uncertainty exists in peripheral hemodynamics outside the pulmonary vasculature and extra-pulmonary side effects, which may be further exacerbated by underlying disease states. The speedy improvement of arterial pressure is possible via the inhalation route because it has direct access to pulmonary arterioles. Additionally, closed particle deposition and accumulation in diseased tissues benefit the restoration of remolded arterioles by reducing fallacious drug deposition in other organs. This review is designed to decipher the pathological changes that should be taken into account when targeting the underlying pulmonary endothelial vasculature, especially with regard to inhaled particle deposition in the alveolar vasculature and characteristic formulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3490
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2022


  • endothelial dysfunction
  • inhaled drug delivery
  • lipid nanoparticles
  • particles deposition
  • pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • targeted delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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