An Update on the Molecular and Cellular Basis of Pharmacotherapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Mohamed Omer Mahgoub, Ifrah Ismail Ali, Jennifer O. Adeghate, Kornélia Tekes, Huba Kalász, Ernest A. Adeghate

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic illness with an increasing global prevalence. More than 537 million cases of diabetes were reported worldwide in 2021, and the number is steadily increasing. The worldwide number of people suffering from DM is projected to reach 783 million in 2045. In 2021 alone, more than USD 966 billion was spent on the management of DM. Reduced physical activity due to urbanization is believed to be the major cause of the increase in the incidence of the disease, as it is associated with higher rates of obesity. Diabetes poses a risk for chronic complications such as nephropathy, angiopathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Hence, the successful management of blood glucose is the cornerstone of DM therapy. The effective management of the hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes includes physical exercise, diet and therapeutic interventions (insulin, biguanides, second generation sulfonylureas, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, amylin mimetics, meglitinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and bile acid sequestrants). The optimal and timely treatment of DM improves the quality of life and reduces the severe burden of the disease for patients. Genetic testing, examining the roles of different genes involved in the pathogenesis of DM, may also help to achieve optimal DM management in the future by reducing the incidence of DM and by enhancing the use of individualized treatment regimens.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9328
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • diabetes complications
  • diet
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypoglycemic agents
  • insulin resistance
  • lifestyle
  • physical activity
  • remission of diabetes mellitus
  • treatment
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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