Irisin is a novel myokine and adipokine that has gained much attention recently due to its mechanisms of action. Irisin is secreted following proteolytic cleavage of its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). Following its release, irisin exerts its major action by increasing the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1), which facilitates the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into beige adipose tissue. Irisin is distributed in various body tissues and several actions have been attributed to its presence in those tissues. It has been suggested that it plays a role in metabolic diseases, ageing, inflammation and neurogenesis. However, the circulating levels of irisin are modulated by several factors such as diet, obesity, exercise, pharmacological agents and different pathological conditions. In this review, we have discussed the mechanisms by which irisin influences the functions of different body systems and how external factors in turn affect the circulating level of irisin. In conclusion, modification of circulating irisin level may help in the management of a variety of endocrine and metabolic disorders.
- Insulin resistance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience