# Analyzing co-infection dynamics: A mathematical approach using fractional order modeling and Laplace-Adomian decomposition

Isa Abdullahi Baba, Fathalla A. Rihan, Evren Hincal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

## Abstract

The co-infection of HIV and COVID-19 is a pressing health concern, carrying substantial potential consequences. This study focuses on the vital task of comprehending the dynamics of HIV-COVID-19 co-infection, a fundamental step in formulating efficacious control strategies and optimizing healthcare approaches. Here, we introduce an innovative mathematical model grounded in Caputo fractional order differential equations, specifically designed to encapsulate the intricate dynamics of co-infection. This model encompasses multiple critical facets: the transmission dynamics of both HIV and COVID-19, the host's immune responses, and the influence of treatment interventions. Our approach embraces the complexity of these factors to offer an exhaustive portrayal of co-infection dynamics. To tackle the fractional order model, we employ the Laplace-Adomian decomposition method, a potent mathematical tool for approximating solutions in fractional order differential equations. Utilizing this technique, we simulate the intricate interactions between these variables, yielding profound insights into the propagation of co-infection. Notably, we identify pivotal contributors to its advancement. In addition, we conduct a meticulous analysis of the convergence properties inherent in the series solutions acquired through the Laplace-Adomian decomposition method. This examination assures the reliability and accuracy of our mathematical methodology in approximating solutions. Our findings hold significant implications for the formulation of effective control strategies. Policymakers, healthcare professionals, and public health authorities will benefit from this research as they endeavor to curtail the proliferation and impact of HIV-COVID-19 co-infection.

Original language English 113-124 12 Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity 6 2 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2024.05.002 Published - Jun 2024

## Keywords

• Co-infection
• Convergence
• COVID-19
• Human immuno deficiency virus
• Series solution

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

• Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
• General Immunology and Microbiology
• Linguistics and Language
• Infectious Diseases

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