Antimicrobial activity of eugenol and carvacrol against Salmonella enterica and E. coli O157:H7 in falafel paste at different storage temperatures

Amin N. Olaimat, Murad A. Al-Holy, Tareq M. Osaili, Mahmoud H. Abughoush, Anas A. Al-Nabulsi, Maysa Alawneh, Lamees Deseh, Bushra Abazeed, Raghdah Shqair, Sawsan Mutlaq, Mutamed Ayyash, Richard A. Holley

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    The objectives of the current study were: i) to investigate the antimicrobial activity of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.50 % (7.54, 15.08 and 30.17 mmol/Kg of eugenol) and (8.15, 16.31, and 33.61 mmol/Kg of carvacrol) against S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 in falafel paste (FP) stored at 4, 10 or 25 °C for 10 d; and ii) to study the sensory properties of fried falafel treated with eugenol and carvacrol. S. enterica grew well in untreated falafel (control) samples at 10 and 25 °C, while E. coli O157:H7 grew only at 25 °C. However, numbers of S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 in FP stored at 4 °C were reduced by 1.4–1.6 log CFU/g after 10 d. The antimicrobial agents were more effective at 25 °C against S. enterica, but were better at 4 and 10 °C against E. coli O157:H7. Addition of 0.125–0.5 % eugenol or carvacrol reduced the S. enterica numbers to undetectable level by direct plating (2 log CFU/g) by 2–10 d at 25 °C. FP samples treated with 0.5 % eugenol or 0.25–0.5 % carvacrol were negative for S. enterica cells by enrichment (1 CFU/5 g) by 10 d at 25 °C. In contrast, viable E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by direct plating when FP was treated with 0.25–0.5 % carvacrol or 0.5 % eugenol and stored at 4 °C by 2 d. Addition of eugenol or carvacrol did not affect the color, texture, and appearance of fried falafel but decreased the flavor and overall acceptability scores compared to untreated falafel. Using eugenol and carvacrol as natural antimicrobials have the potential to enhance the safety of FP by reducing the threat from foodborne pathogens.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number110648
    JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
    Volume415
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 16 2024

    Keywords

    • Essential oils
    • Falafel
    • Food safety
    • Foodborne pathogens
    • Natural antimicrobials

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Food Science
    • Microbiology

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