Antioxidant defense responses: Physiological plasticity in higher plants under abiotic constraints

Cheruth Abdul Jaleel, Ksouri Riadh, Ragupathi Gopi, Paramasivam Manivannan, Jallali Inès, Hameed Jasim Al-Juburi, Zhao Chang-Xing, Shao Hong-Bo, Rajaram Panneerselvam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

412 Citations (Scopus)


Environmental stresses (salinity, drought, heat/cold, light and other hostile conditions) may trigger in plants oxidative stress, generating the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These species are partially reduced or activated derivatives of oxygen, comprising both free radical text{O}}-{2}} ,{text{OH}}, {\text{OH}}-{ 2}) and non-radical (H2O2) forms, leading to cellular damage, metabolic disorders and senescence processes. In order to overcome oxidative stress, plants have developed two main antioxidants defense mechanisms that can be classified as non-enzymatic and enzymatic systems. The first class (non-enzymatic) consists of small molecules such as vitamin (A, C and E), glutathione, carotenoids and phenolics that can react directly with the ROS by scavenging them. Second class is represented by enzymes among them superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase which have the capacity to eliminate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. In this review, we have tried to explore the related works, which have revealed the changes in the basic antioxidant metabolism of plants under various abiotic constraints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-436
Number of pages10
JournalActa Physiologiae Plantarum
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Abiotic constraints
  • Antioxidant defense
  • Enzymes
  • Glutathione
  • Phenolics
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Vitamins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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