AquaTrainer® Snorkel does not Increase Hydrodynamic Drag but Influences Turning Time

J. Ribeiro, P. Figueiredo, L. Guidetti, F. Alves, H. Toussaint, J. P. Vilas-Boas, C. Baldari, R. J. Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Our purpose was to verify if the use of the new AquaTrainer® respiratory snorkel lead to an increase of front crawl hydrodynamic drag and whether the constraint of using an adapted turning technique influences its corresponding turning time. 12 swimmers performed 2 (without and with snorkel) 12×25 front crawl repetitions from low to maximal velocity on the measuring active drag system. Complementarily, 3 swimming turns were compared: open turn with snorkel, tumble turn and open turn without snorkel. Drag values were similar without vs. with snorkel at 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 m.s-1 velocities: 15.84 ±5.32 vs. 16.18±4.81, 25.60±6.69 vs. 26.03±6.17, 38.37±8.04 vs. 38.88±7.56, 54.64±10.06 vs. 55.08±9.55, 74.77±14.09 vs. 74.92±13.14 N, (respectively, p≥0.05), and high agreement between conditions was observed (p<0.01). Front crawl swimming with snorkel using the open turn implied an increase in turning time of 14.2 and 5.1% than the tumble turn and open turn without the apparatus (p<0.01). AquaTrainer® snorkel does not lead to an increase in active drag during front crawl performed at a large range of velocities and, consequently, the metabolic energy necessary to overcome total drag will not be affected. However, turning with it requires an additional time that should be taken into account in scientific research and training conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)324-328
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • energetics
  • front crawl
  • K4b
  • swimming
  • turns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'AquaTrainer® Snorkel does not Increase Hydrodynamic Drag but Influences Turning Time'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this