Irrespective of the exceptional adaptation of dromedaries to harsh environmental conditions, they remain highly susceptible to joint lameness resulting from a range of diverse factors and conditions. The joints most often affected by traumatic osteoarthritis in dromedaries are the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. A comprehensive understanding of joint anatomy and topography of the dromedary is required to perform arthrocentesis correctly on affected joints. Forty-two distal limbs were taken from 28 camels and studied by gross dissection, casting, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT). Representative three-dimensional models of the joint cavities, recesses, and pouches were obtained using different casting agents. This study provides a detailed description of dorsally, axially, and abaxially positioned joint recesses, as well as palmar/plantar positioned joint pouches. The safety and feasibility of the different arthrocentesis approaches were evaluated. The traditional dorsal arthrocentesis approach of the metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, has limitations due to the risk of damaging the tendon structures and articular cartilage, which can lead to joint degeneration. A lateral arthrocentesis approach via the proximal palmar/plantar pouches of the metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints is recommended. This approach eliminates the potential needle injury to the articulating joint cartilage and other surrounding joint structures, such as tendons, blood vessels, and nerves.
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