Article Jordan’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP): A Reflection on COVID-19 Response

Khalid A. Kheirallah, Mohammed Al-Nusair, Shahed Aljabeiti, Nadir Sheikali, Abdallah Alzoubi, Jomana W. Alsulaiman, Abdel Hameed Al-Mistarehi, Hamed Alzoubi, Ayman Ahmad Bani Mousa, Mohammed Z. Allouh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The COVID-19 pandemic made it clear to the world that better preparedness for future pandemics is paramount. This study aims to explore how the 2018 Jordan’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) assessment plan (conducted utilizing a standardized tool of the CDC National Inventory of Core Capabilities for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response) reflected on the initial COVID-19 response. A qualitative, single intrinsic case study design, utilizing interpretivist approach, was utilized to interview subject-matter experts and explore the potential reflection of PIP assessment on COVID-19 response. Utilizing a mini-Delphi approach, the interviews aimed at generating an in-depth understanding of how the Jordan’s PIP risk assessment reflects on the country’s response to COVID-19. The following 12 core capabilities, along with their reflections on COVID-19, were assessed: country planning, research and use of findings, communications, epidemiologic capability, laboratory capability, routine influenza surveillance, national respiratory disease surveillance, outbreak response, resources for containment, community-based interventions to prevent the spread of influenza, infection control (IC), and health sector pandemic response. Jordan’s experience and preparedness for influenza may have served as a crucial guide to establishing success in COVID-19 control and mitigation. Surveillance, outbreak, and research activities were very well established in Jordan’s PIP, whereas surge capacity in human capital and health facility were identified as two high-risk areas. However, the limitation in these two areas was met during the COVID-19 response. Still, human capital suffered fatigue, and there was an evident lack of laboratory testing plans when COVID-19 cases increased. Jordan’s experience with PIP may have served as a guide for establishing successful COVID-19 control and mitigation. The established PIP principles, systems, and capacities seem to have reflected well on fighting against COVID-19 in terms of more efficient utilization of available surveillance, laboratory, outbreak management, and risk communications. This reflection facilitated a better mitigation and control of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7200
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Jordan
  • PIP
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • influenza
  • national inventory
  • pandemic
  • preparedness
  • response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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