Artificial Intelligence Implementation in Healthcare: A Theory-Based Scoping Review of Barriers and Facilitators

Taridzo Chomutare, Miguel Tejedor, Therese Olsen Svenning, Luis Marco-Ruiz, Maryam Tayefi, Karianne Lind, Fred Godtliebsen, Anne Moen, Leila Ismail, Alexandra Makhlysheva, Phuong Dinh Ngo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


There is a large proliferation of complex data-driven artificial intelligence (AI) applications in many aspects of our daily lives, but their implementation in healthcare is still limited. This scoping review takes a theoretical approach to examine the barriers and facilitators based on empirical data from existing implementations. We searched the major databases of relevant scientific publications for articles related to AI in clinical settings, published between 2015 and 2021. Based on the theoretical constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), we used a deductive, followed by an inductive, approach to extract facilitators and barriers. After screening 2784 studies, 19 studies were included in this review. Most of the cited facilitators were related to engagement with and management of the implementation process, while the most cited barriers dealt with the intervention’s generalizability and interoperability with existing systems, as well as the inner settings’ data quality and availability. We noted per-study imbalances related to the reporting of the theoretic domains. Our findings suggest a greater need for implementation science expertise in AI implementation projects, to improve both the implementation process and the quality of scientific reporting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16359
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • AI implementation
  • CFIR
  • artificial intelligence
  • deep learning
  • diagnosis
  • eHealth
  • healthcare
  • machine learning
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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