Artificial intelligence in compulsory level of education: perspectives from Namibian in-service teachers

Cloneria Nyambali Jatileni, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusi, Sunday Adewale Olaleye, Musa Adekunle Ayanwale, Friday Joseph Agbo, Peter B. Oyelere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


With the push to integrate Artificial Intelligence (AI) from kindergarten to twelfth-grade levels comes a need for equipped teachers. However, there needs to be more initiative in professional learning opportunities, which demands the required effort to ensure teachers learn the AI content they will be teaching. To design an effective professional development program, understanding teachers' existing knowledge, interest and disposition towards AI is crucial to devise strategies that could best support the teachers. As a result, this study aims to investigate in-service teachers' perspectives of teaching AI in schools from the perspective of planned behavior theory. Using a 7-factor scale of AI Anxiety, AI Readiness, AI Relevance, Attitude towards using AI, AI for Social Good, Confidence in AI and Behavioral Intention. This study sampled 159 in-service teachers in Namibia. The teachers' responses were analyzed with SmartPLS using Structural Equation Modelling and various Multigroup Analysis techniques. This study found that teachers' behavioral intention to teach AI depends on a combination of factors, including the relevance of AI, attitude towards using AI, the use of AI for social good and confidence. Meanwhile, AI Anxiety and readiness could not be linked to the intention to teach AI. We discussed our findings, highlighted the study implication, and suggested future directions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Artificial intelligence education
  • Basic education
  • In-service Namibian teachers
  • Social good

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Library and Information Sciences


Dive into the research topics of 'Artificial intelligence in compulsory level of education: perspectives from Namibian in-service teachers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this