Assessing the relationship between cultural diversity and disaster preparedness; (A case study of flood hazard for Northern and Southern Punjab)

H. M.J. Raheem, S. M. Mayo, A. Y. Kamel, R. Maqbool, M. M.A. Mohamed, M. A. Maraqa, H. M. Gouda, F. K. Hamdani, T. E. Butt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A strong relationship exists between cultural diversity and disaster preparedness. However, there is not much literature conducted globally regarding the correlation between the two factors and as for Punjab (Pakistan), no studies were found. Based on the knowledge-gaps identified, this research study creates a culture-based approach to measure flood disaster preparedness in Punjab. The study focuses on flood since it is a common disaster in the targeted region. Dhalewali (Sialkot) and Utra-Sandilah (Muzaffargarh) from the Northern and Southern Punjab, respectively are selected to be the concentration of the study since they have a history of and are prone to flooding. Data is collected via a double-barrel survey comprising a questionnaire that captures both social and economic (socio-economic) parameters to cover a wider spectrum of the culture diversity. Quantitative and graphical representation of the data analyzed proved the existence of a strong relationship between cultural diversity and successful disaster preparedness. Results showed that Utra-Sandilah (Muzaffargarh) has better cultural diversity than Dhalewali (Sialkot). Moreover, people of Muzaffargarh have better relationships with each other, higher level of cooperation and collaboration with the government's schemes and initiatives against flood disaster measures and are willing to actively participate in flood preparedness. Even though the latter indicates that Utra-Sandilah (Muzaffargarh) is more prepared than Dhalewali (Sialkot), there is a need to enhance flood disaster preparedness at both individual household and community levels in both areas; for instance, reducing the gender-divide gap. A framework model is also developed based on the relationship between disaster preparedness and cultural diversity, which is replicable and reproduceable for other similar scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103452
JournalInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Cultural diversity
  • Culture & disaster relationship
  • Culture & flood
  • Disaster risk reduction (DRR)
  • Flood preparedness
  • Punjab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Safety Research


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