Assessment of cognitive functions in euthymic patients with bipolar II disorder compared with healthy controls

Marwa A. Hamed, Reem El S. Hashem, Doaa A. Khalifa, Mona I. Awaad, Doha El M. Serafi, Karim M. Abdelaziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: There is increasing evidence that several cognitive areas are impaired during the acute phases of bipolar disorder (BD) and that this impairment persists even in the euthymic periods. The BD-II population has not been assessed in this aspect, mainly because of the small number of patients with BD-II.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of patients with BD-II with a healthy control group by demonstrating the range of neuropsychological deficits in the various cognitive domains in euthymic BD-II patients.

Participants and methods: The study included 30 euthymic patients with BD-II [diagnosed using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the euthymic state determined using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression], who were compared on neuropsychological variables (e.g. executive function, attention, and verbal and visual memory) and contrasted with 30 healthy controls without a history of neurological or psychiatric disorders on cognitive performance.

Results: Compared with the controls, BD-II patients showed significant deficits in most cognitive tasks including the majority of domains of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, verbal intelligence quotient (P = 0.003) and comprehension (P=0.004), and on digit symbol (P = 0.049), memory functions (Wechsler Memory Scale; P=0.000), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test; P=0.031), and executive functions [maintain set (P=0.008), learn category (P = 0.007), and categories completed (P = 0.012)].

Conclusion: We conclude that cognitive impairment exists during the period of euthymia in BD-II. These cognitive difficulties, especially related to verbal memory, may help in explaining the impairment in daily functioning and may aid the formulation of a special rehabilitation program for them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-251
Number of pages8
JournalMiddle East Current Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 10 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Attention
  • Bipolar II
  • Cognitive functions
  • Euthymia
  • Memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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