Azadirachtin Attenuates Carcinogen Benzo(a) Pyrene-Induced DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Inflammatory, Metabolic, and Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

Annie John, Haider Raza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Azadirachtin (AZD), a limonoid from the versatile, tropical neem tree (Azadirachta indica), is well known for its many medicinal, and pharmacological effects. Its effects as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer agent are well known. However, not many studies have explored the effects of AZD on toxicities induced by benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a toxic component of cigarette smoke known to cause DNA damage and cell cycle arrest, leading to different kinds of cancer. In the present study, using HepG2 cells, we investigated the protective effects of Azadirachtin (AZD) against B(a)P-induced oxidative/nitrosative and metabolic stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment with 25 µM B(a)P for 24 h demonstrated an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), followed by increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage presumably, due to the increased metabolic activation of B(a)P by CYP 450 1A1/1A2 enzymes. We also observed intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, alterations in glutathione-dependent redox homeostasis, cell cycle arrest, and inflammation after B(a)P treatment. Cells treated with 25 µM AZD for 24 h showed decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, partial protection from DNA damage, and an improvement in mitochondrial functions and bioenergetics. The improvement in antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory potential, and alterations in cell cycle regulatory markers qualify AZD as a potential therapeutic in combination with anti-cancer drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2001
JournalAntioxidants
Volume12
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • Azadirachtin
  • DNA damage
  • HepG2 cells
  • apoptosis
  • benzo(a)pyrene
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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