Bentonite-Clay/CNT-Based Nano Adsorbent for Textile Wastewater Treatment: Optimization of Process Parameters

Tayyaba Jamil, Saima Yasin, Naveed Ramzan, Hafiz Muhammad Zaheer Aslam, Amir Ikhlaq, Abdul Mannan Zafar, Ashraf Aly Hassan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Dyes are the most carcinogenic organic compounds that are discarded by most of the textile industries without any prior treatment, which is harmful for the environment. This study aims to develop a bentonite-clay/carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based adsorbent to treat textile wastewater for water sustainability. The preliminary and post-characterization of adsorbent involves scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis to determine the changes in surface morphology, functional group, and surface area of the adsorbent. Linear and nonlinear isotherms and kinetic studies were performed to explore the sorption mechanism. The results show that the nonlinear form of the Langmuir isotherm best fits adsorption with a qmax of 550 mg/g. The adsorption followed the nonlinear pseudo-first-order kinetics, favoring chemisorption with R2 ≈ 1 and X2 = 0.22. Maximum dye removal (89.9%) was achieved under the optimum conditions of pH 3, an adsorbent dose of 100 mg, and a contact time of 120 min, with an initial COD concentration of 1140 mgL−1. This study has demonstrated the successful application of a bentonite-clay/CNT-based adsorbent on textile wastewater treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3197
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • central composite design
  • dye removal
  • endothermic
  • nanocomposite
  • response surface methodology
  • textile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology


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