Here, we delineate the phenotype of two siblings with a bi-allelic frameshift variant in MMP15 gene with congenital cardiac defects, cholestasis, and dysmorphism. Genome sequencing analysis revealed a recently reported homozygous frameshift variant (c.1058delC, p.Pro353Glnfs*102) in MMP15 gene that co-segregates with the phenotype in the family in a recessive mode of inheritance. Relative quantification of MMP15 mRNA showed evidence of degradation of the mutated transcript, presumably by nonsense mediated decay. Likewise, MMP15: p.Gly231Arg, a concurrently reported homozygous missense variant in another patient exhibiting a similar phenotype, was predicted to disrupt zinc ion binding to the MMP-15 enzyme catalytic domain, which is essential for substrate proteolysis, by structural modeling. Previous animal models and cellular findings suggested that MMP15 plays a crucial role in the formation of endocardial cushions. These findings confirm that MMP15 is an important gene in human development, particularly cardiac, and that its loss of function is likely to cause a severe disorder phenotype.
- congenital heart disease
- endocardial cushions formation
- matrix metalloproteinase 15
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