Biomass and bioenergy: An overview of the development potential in Turkey and Malaysia

Munir Ozturk, Naheed Saba, Volkan Altay, Rizwan Iqbal, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Mohammad Jawaid, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

179 Citations (Scopus)


Among renewable energy sources, the share of biomass in total energy consumption in Turkey is increasing. Fuelwood and animal waste biomass are extensively used for heating and cooking in urban and rural areas. It has been estimated that Turkey has recoverable energy potential mainly originating from agricultural, livestock breeding, wood and forest processing, and municipality wastes. Annual production of wastes in the country amounts to 30 million tons. Turkey also produces 1.5 million tons of biodiesel, 3 million tons of bioethanol and 2.5–4.0 billion m3 of biogas per year. In Turkey, total biomass production is expected to reach a level of 52.5 Mtoe by 2030. Malaysia produces annually approximately 168 million tons of biomass, including timber, oil palm waste, rice husks, coconut trunk fibers, municipal and sugarcane wastes. Every year, nearly 58 million tons of palm oil mill effluent are produced in Malaysia. It has been estimated that the country has the potential to generate around 15 billion m3 of biogas annually. Estimates also show that Malaysia can produce more than 2400 MW of biomass and 410 MW of biogas, however, only 773 MW of the total potential was harnessed until 2011. The National Biomass Strategy 2020 proposes a scenario according to which an additional 20 million tonnes of oil palm biomass could be utilized by the year 2020 for higher value uses, which could significantly contribute to improving Malaysia's economy. Both countries have good potential to use biomass resources, but political backing and sustainable planning are necessary. In this review article, we try to compare future energy scenarios, renewable energy and biomass potentials of Turkey and Malaysia, while providing an insight into data on different biomass availability and its probable contribution to both nations’ economies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1285-1302
Number of pages18
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Agricultural wastes
  • Bioenergy
  • Biogas
  • Biomass
  • Malaysia
  • Turkey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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