Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold and Copper Nanoparticles from Salvadora persica Fruit Extracts and Their Biological Properties

Sammar Fathy Elhabal, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Soha Hassanin, Ahmed A. El-Rashedy, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Mohammad Ahmad Khasawneh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant has emerged as an eco-friendly, clean, and viable strategy alternative to chemical and physical approaches. Methods: The fruit extract of Salvadora persica (SP) was utilized as a reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis of gold (AuNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles. Results: UV–Vis spectra of the AuNPs and CuNPs showed peaks at the wavelengths of 530 nm and 440 nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that nanoparticles exhibited a mainly spherical form, with a distribution range of 100 to 113 nm in diameter for AuNPs and of 130 to 135 nm in diameter for CuNPs. While energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was able to confirm the existence of AuNPs and CuNPs. The alcoholic extract of the fruit SP was analyzed by GC-MS in order to identify whether or not it contained any active phytochemicals. Fourier-transform infrared spectra confirmed the presence capping functional biomolecules of SP on the surface of nanoparticles that acts as stabilizers. Analysis of the zeta potential revealed that NPs with high degree of stability, as demonstrated by a strong negative potential value in the range of 25.2 to 28.7 mV. Results showed that both green AuNPs and CuNPs have potential antimicrobial activity against human pathogens such gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria, with CuNPs having antimicrobial activity higher than AuNPs. In addition, AuNPs and CuNPs have promising antioxidant and anticancer properties when applied to MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Studies of molecular docking of SP bioactive compounds were conducted against methenyl tetrahydrofolate synthetase. Among all of them, Beta – Sitosterol was the most prominent. Conclusion: These AuNPs and CuNPs are particularly appealing in a variety of applications in the pharmaceutical and medicinal industries due to their economical and environmentally friendly production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6095-6112
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Salvadora persica
  • antibacterial
  • anticancer
  • antioxidant
  • green nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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