Cardiorespiratory Reference Data in Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study

Dorthe Stensvold, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Hallgeir Viken, Nina Zisko, Line Skarsem Reitlo, Javaid Nauman, Svein Erik Gaustad, Erlend Hassel, Marcel Moufack, Eivind BrØnstad, Nils Petter Aspvik, Vegard Malmo, Sigurd Loe Steinshamn, AsbjØrn StØylen, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Jorunn L. Helbostad, Øivind Rognmo, Ulrik WislØff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is regarded a clinical vital sign, and accurate reference values for all age groups are essential. Little data exist on CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older adults. The aim of this study was to provide normative values for CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older adults, including people with history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods In total, 1537 (769 women) participants age 70 to 77 yr underwent clinical examinations and cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilation (VEpeak), expiration of carbon dioxide (VVCO2peak), breathing frequency (BFpeak), tidal volume (VTpeak), oxygen pulse (O2 pulsepeak), ventilatory efficiency (EqVO2peak and EqVCO2peak), and 1-min HR recovery were assessed. Results Men compared with women had higher VO2peak (31.3 ± 6.7 vs 26.2 ± 5.0 mL·min-1·kg-1), BFpeak (41.8 ± 8.0 vs 39.7 ± 7.1 breaths per minute), VTpeak (2.3 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3), O2 pulsepeak (16.4 ± 3.2 vs 11.3 ± 2.0), VCO2peak (2.9 ± 0.2 and 1.9 ± 0.1 L·min-1), VEpeak (96.2 ± 21.7 vs 61.1 ± 21.6 L·min-1), EqVO2peak (38.0 ± 6.9 vs 35.1 ± 5.6), and EqVCO2peak (33.5 ± 5.7 vs 31.9 ± 4.5). Women and men with CVD had lower VO2peak (14% and 19%), peak HR (5% and 6%), VEpeak (8% and 10%), VTpeak (7% and 4%), and lower EqVCO2peak (4% and 6%) compared with their healthy counterparts, respectively. Compared with healthy women and men, 1-min HR recovery was 12% and 16% lower for women and men with CVD. Conclusions This study represents the largest reference material on directly measured CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older men and women, with and without CVD. This novel information will help researchers and clinicians to interpret data form cardiopulmonary testing in older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2206-2215
Number of pages10
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2017
Externally publishedYes



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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