Ce-Loaded HZSM-5 Composite for Catalytic Deoxygenation of Algal Hydrolyzed Oil into Hydrocarbons and Oxygenated Compounds

Mustafa Jawad Nuhma, Hajar Alias, Muhammad Tahir, Ali A. Jazie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the extensive research into the catalytic uses of zeolite-based catalysts, these catalysts have a limited useful lifetime because of the deactivating effect of coke production. This study looks at the use of Cerium (Ce) loaded HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts in the hydrocarbon and oxygenated chemical conversion from Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae crude oil. Characterization of structure, morphology, and crystallinity was performed after the catalysts were manufactured using the impregnation technique. Soxhlet extraction was carried out to extract the crude oil of microalgae. Transesterification reaction was used to produce algal hydrolyzed oil (HO), and the resulting HO was put to use in a batch reactor at 300 °C, 1000 rpm, 7 bars of nitrogen pressure, a catalyst to the algal HO ratio of 15% (wt. %), and a retention time of 6 h. To determine which Ce-loaded HZSM-5 catalysts would be most effective in converting algal HO into non-oxygenated molecules (hydrocarbons), we conducted a series of tests. Liquid product characteristics were analyzed for elemental composition, higher heating value (HHV), atomic ratios of O/C and H/C, and degree of deoxygenation (DOD%). Results were categorized into three groups: product yield, chemical composition, and carbon number distribution. When Cerium was added to HZSM-5 zeolite at varying loading percentages, the zeolite’s acid sites became more effective in facilitating the algal HO conversion. The results showed that 10%Ce/HZSM-5 had the greatest conversion of the algal HO, the yield of hydrocarbons, HHV, and DOD% (98.2%, 30%, 34.05 MJ/Kg, and 51.44%, respectively) among all the synthesized catalysts in this research. In conclusion, the physical changes seen in the textural characteristics may be attributed to Cerium-loading on the parent HZSM-5; nevertheless, there is no direct association between the physical features and the hydrocarbons yield (%). The primary impact of Cerium alteration of the parent HZSM-5 zeolite was to change the acidic sites required to boost the conversion (%) of the algal HO in the catalytic deoxygenation process, which in turn increased the hydrocarbons yield (%), which in turn increased the HHV and DOD%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7251
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Cerium
  • Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae
  • deoxygenation
  • hydrocarbons
  • HZSM-5 zeolite
  • oxygenates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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