CFD and statistical approach to optimize the average air velocity and air volume fraction in an inert-particles spouted-bed reactor (IPSBR) system

A. Mohammad, A. A.H.I. Mourad, A. H. Al-Marzouqi, M. H. El-Naas, B. Van der Bruggen, M. Al-Marzouqi, F. Alnaimat, M. Suleiman, M. Al Musharfy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Inert-particles spouted bed reactor (IPSBR) is characterized by intense mixing generated by the circular motion of the inert particles. The operating parameters play an important role in the performance of the IPSBR system, and therefore, parameter optimization is critical for the design and scale-up of this gas–liquid contact system. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides detailed modeling of the system hydrodynamics, enabling the determination of the operating conditions that optimize the performance of this contact system. The present work optimizes the main IPSBR operating parameters, which include a feed-gas velocity in the range 0.5–1.5 m/s, orifice diameter in the range 0.001–0.005 m, gas head in the range 0.15–0.35 m, mixing-particle diameter in the range 0.009–0.0225 m, and mixing-particle to reactor volume fraction in the range 2.0–10.0 vol % (which represents 0.01–0.1 kg of mixing particles loading). The effects of these parameters on the average air velocity and average air volume fraction in the upper, middle, and conical regions of the reactor were studied. The specific distance for each region has been measured from the orifice point to be 50 mm for the conical region, 350 mm for the middle region and 550 mm for the upper rejoin. The selected factors were optimized to obtain the minimum air velocity distribution (maximum gas residence time) and the maximum air volume fraction (maximum interfacial area concentration) because these conditions will increase the gas holdup, the gas–liquid contact area, and the mass transfer coefficient among phases. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum operating conditions. The regression analysis showed an excellent fit of the experimental data to a second-order polynomial model. The interaction between the process variables was evaluated using the obtained three-dimensional surface plots. The analysis revealed that under the optimized parameters of a feed-gas velocity of 1.5 m/s, orifice diameter of 0.001 m, gas head of 0.164 m, mixing-particle diameter of 0.0225 m, and mixing-particle loading of 0.02 kg, the minimum average air velocity and highest air volume fraction were observed throughout the reactor.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere06369
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Eulerian model
  • Gas–liquid reactor
  • Optimization
  • Regression analysis
  • Response surface methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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