Challenges and recent advances in enzyme-mediated wastewater remediation—a review

Khadega A. Al-Maqdi, Nada Elmerhi, Khawlah Athamneh, Muhammad Bilal, Ahmed Alzamly, Syed Salman Ashraf, Iltaf Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Different classes of artificial pollutants, collectively called emerging pollutants, are detected in various water bodies, including lakes, rivers, and seas. Multiple studies have shown the devastating effects these emerging pollutants can have on human and aquatic life. The main reason for these emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment is their incomplete removal in the existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Several additional treatments that could potentially supplement existing WWTPs to eliminate these pollutants include a range of physicochemical and biological methods. The use of enzymes, specifically, oxidoreductases, are increasingly being studied for their ability to degrade different classes of organic compounds. These enzymes have been immobilized on different supports to promote their adoption as a cost-effective and recyclable remediation approach. Unfortunately, some of these techniques have shown a negative effect on the enzyme, including denaturation and loss of catalytic activity. This review focuses on the major challenges facing researchers working on the immobilization of peroxidases and the recent progress that has been made in this area. It focuses on four major areas: (1) stability of enzymes upon immobilization, enzyme engineering, and evolution; (2) recyclability and reusability, including immobilization on membranes and solid supports; (3) cost associated with enzyme-based remediation; and (4) scaling-up and bioreactors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3124
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Enzyme immobilization
  • Hybrid nanoflowers
  • Metal organic framework
  • Peroxidases enzymes
  • Water remediation enzyme evolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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