Characterisation and Reverse Engineering of Eco-Friendly Historical Mortar: QasrTuba, Desert Castles in Jordan

Ayoup M. Ghrair, Adi J. Said, Naela Aldaoud, Riham Miqdadi, Ahmad A.L. Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineral composition of the historical mortars of Qasr Tuba and to re-produce them for the restoration process. The mortar samples were collected from the foundation and walls of Qasr Tuba. The chemical and mineral composition of the mortar was determined using several techniques. In addition, the quantitative minerals content was recalculated for the mortar samples utilizing the material balances equation. Moreover, 12 mixtures of mortar were prepared and tested for fresh and hardened properties, according to their respective national and international standards. The results revealed that two types of mortar were used: (i) the lime-based mortar was used for the foundation and joint mortars in the lower parts of the building walls with a gypsum-hydrated lime ratio of 1:3; and (ii) the gypsum-based mortar was used as joint mortar in the upper parts of the building walls for baked bricks at a gypsum-hydrated lime ratio of 4:1. A pozzolanic reaction in the Qasr Tuba mortar produced a new formation of Xonotlite, Stratlingite, and calcium aluminium hydrate as a secondary cementing mineral. In conclusion, the use of hydraulic lime mortar was considered for building an environment for capturing the CO, gas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-134
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Ecological Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Qasr Tuba
  • compressive strength
  • eco-friendly
  • flexural strength
  • grog
  • gypsum
  • historical restoration
  • lime
  • mortar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • General Environmental Science


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